This activity (National Academy Science, 1998) can be typically used to introduce students to NOS.
Students are shown a mystery tube and its behaviors. They are then asked to infer what the structure of the inside of the tube looks like and design and construct physical models that behave in the same way as the original tube.
The NOS discussion focuses on how and why inferences are different from observations, how human subjectivity leads to different models that replicate the original tube in the same way and inconclusive nature of a scientific model, followed by authentic examples of natural science like models of an atom.
A mystery tube, toilet paper tubes, hole punchers, strings, scissors, nuts